Bank Balance Sheet

A balance sheet of a bank shows all financial operations conducted by a bank for a certain period of time. It reveals the borrowed funds by them, their own funds, their sources, their placements in credit and other transactions.

It is recorded in the two ways. In the left part (asset) all assets are reflected and in the right (passive) – liabilities and capital of the bank are positioned. An asset is anything that can be old whereas a liability is an obligation of the financial institution that must be eventually paid back. The owner’s equity in a bank is often referred to as bank capital, which is the remaining amount when all assets have been sold and all liabilities have been paid. The relationship of all balance sheet components can be simply described by the following equation.

Bank Assets = Bank Liabilities + Bank Capital

Assets earn revenue and include:

-Cash in hand;

-Funds on correspondent accounts;

-Funds in reserve funds of the bank;

-Granted loans to legal entities and individuals; (client loan portfolio)

-Interbank loans granted;

-Government bonds;

-Commercial securities;

Depending on the nature of the sources of funds, all liabilities differ in terms of their duration and cost. The main sources of funds as a rule, are deposits of individuals and legal entities, and in addition, funds of central (national) banks and loans obtained from other commercial banks.

Liabilities:

-Funds of banks and other credit institutions;

-Clients accounts, including household deposits;

– The promissory notes issued by the bank;

By using liabilities the owners of banks can leverage their capital to earn much more value than would otherwise be possible using only the bank’s capital.

Also, Central banks regulate bank liabilities by setting mandatory reserve requirements from attracted deposits or by imposing administrative restrictions or incentives.

Assets and liabilities are further distinguished as being either current or long-term. Current assets are assets expected to be sold or otherwise converted to cash within 1 year; otherwise, the assets are long-term. Current liabilities are expected to be paid within 1 year; otherwise, the liabilities are long-term. Current assets and current liabilities are important in assessing liquidity of bank. The deduction of Current assets from Current liabilities gives us a working capital. It is a measure of liquidity. An excess in Working capital a bank is able to meet its short- term liabilities

Education Funding Options

As the cost of higher education continues to rise, many parents and young people struggle with how to cover the cost of college education. Costs of in state and private schools. What are your options when planning for education funding?

529 Plan- These types of plans allow you to contribute after tax dollars that grow tax free. Qualified withdrawals from the plan are not taxed when used for qualified education expenses. You can choose a savings plan that works similar to an IRA, which allows the student to attend a school of his/her choice. Or, you can choose a pre-paid plan that allows you to pre-pay part or all of the costs of an instate public college education.

Life Insurance – Some types of life insurance build cash value and also provide a death benefit. If funded properly, you can access the cash value at the time the child attends college. Keep in mind that accessing the cash value, could also affect the death benefit provided under the policy.

Student Loans- Student loans can be helpful but it is important to remember that students may have to divert funds in the future to repay loans. These are funds that could be used to be used to accomplish other financial goals. If borrowing becomes a necessity, parents could also take a home equity loan and deduct the loan interest at tax time.

Transferring Funds to Children- As of the 2017 tax year, parents and grandparents can gift up to $14,000 to each child without gift tax consequences.

Tax Credits- The American Opportunity Tax Credit and Lifetime Learning Credit are tax credits available to full time students. Household income guidelines do apply, so be sure to check the IRS website to see which option might work better for your family.

Education Savings Account- Parents, guardians, or other qualified individuals can contribute up to $2000 per year on behalf of eligible students under age 18. Withdrawals from the account are not taxable if used for qualified education expenses. All funds must be distributed within 30 days of the participant’s 30th birthday.

The cost of funding higher education can be daunting! It is important to consider many options when thinking about how to fund the cost. All of the above options are various mechanisms available to do so. It is also important to consider what types of grants might be available when selecting educational funding options.

7 Things to Consider When Applying for a Payday Loan

If you are going through tough circumstances, payday loans may sound a tempting option to you. But if you are not an experienced person, we suggest that you consider this option after a lot of thinking. Since these loans feature a very high interest rate, they shouldn’t be taken unless you have no other option. Below are 7 tips that may help you make an informed decision.

Financial charges

The amount of loan you will get is a lot lower than what is written on the check. The reason is that finance charges are deducted from the amount, so you will need to write a check plus these charges. Not doing so will result in a higher rate of financial charges that you will have to pay. Most people get into even bigger trouble when they fail to pay the principal amount along with interest. So, make sure you know how much you are getting and how much you will need to pay back down the road.

Paying back

If you don’t have enough funds in your account to pay back the loan, you may try other options. For instance, you may renew the loan amount or consider taking out another payday loan. But keep in mind that this new loan will have its own financial charges and extra fees. And the extra fees are actually incur because of late payment of the amount of loan.

State Regulations

In each state, regulations are different for payday loans. Usually, the term limit is not more than 30 days. The problem is that lenders often issue loans that feature a longer term limit. In this case, you are at the lender’s mercy, which is a situation you may not be willing to go through.

Cash crunches

As said earlier, the purpose of a payday loan is to deal with a temporary financial crisis, and we have to pay back the loan as soon as we are out of the financial trouble to avoid high interest and fees.

So, it is not a good idea to be tempted by the “roll over” trend or you may have to pay a huge sum at the end.

Financial position

Usually, these loans are for borrowers with lower incomes as they can’t afford to borrow from other sources. Here, it is important to keep in mind that lenders don’t usually take into account the financial position of those who are applying for the loan. So, you have to think harder before opting for this option.

Automatic rollover

You need to be aware that there are some loan sites that tend to rollover the loan amount automatically. And then there are sites that have some contractual agreements that state that you, the borrower, do not have any right to file for bankruptcy or file a lawsuit against the lender.

Approval

A great characteristic of payday loans is that they are easy to get, meaning the approval process is quite easier than other types of loans. So, most borrowers find them quite tempting, but you should be careful and only opt for this option if you have no other choice left.

You may say that opting for a payday loan is a good idea to deal with a temporary financial crisis, but a hasty decision may get you in a bigger trouble. If you don’t be careful enough, you may end up in a vicious circle of debt. Therefore, it’s better to pay back the loan as soon as you get your hands on some extra cash. Hopefully, keeping these tips in mind, you will take this decision.